Chiari I malformation is a congenital disorder in which the cerebellum, the part of the brain that controls balance and coordination, is pushed down into the spinal canal. in simple words in this condition additional development of brain tissues reach into upper spinal canal, which crate disturbance to our brain arteries and Vains which are going through our spinal canal. This can cause a variety of symptoms, including headaches, neck pain, dizziness, and numbness or tingling in the arms and legs.
There are 3 types of Chiari Malformtion such as below
Chiar malformation type 1
In Chiari malformation type 1, symptoms usually appear during late childhood or adulthood.
such as frequent severe Headaches is a classic symptom of Chiari malformation.
They generally occur after sudden coughing, sneezing or straining.
People with Chiari malformation type 1 also experience below symptoms:
Unsteady body balancing
Poor hand coordination
Numbness and tingling of the hands and feet
Dizziness in body
Difficulty in swallowing, sometimes accompanied by gagging, choking and vomiting
Speech problems, such as hoarseness
Less often, people with Chiari malformation may experience:
Ringing or buzzing in the ears (tinnitus)
Slow heart rhythm
Curvature of the spine (scoliosis)
Breathing problems, such as central sleep apnea, which is when a person stops breathing during sleep
Chiari malformation type 2
In Chiari malformation type 2, a greater amount of tissue reaches into the spinal canal than the basic one chiari malformation type 1.
The signs and symptoms can include those related to a form of spina bifida called myelomeningocele that nearly always accompanies Chiari malformation type 2.
In myelomeningocele, the backbone and the spinal canal don’t close properly before birth.
Signs and symptoms of this may include:
Changes in breathing pattern
sevier Swallowing problems, such as gagging
Quick downward eye movements
Weakness in the arms
Chiari malformation type 2 is usually noted with ultrasound during pregnancy. It may also be diagnosed after birth or in early infancy.
Chiari malformation type 3
In the most severe type of the condition, Chiari malformation type 3, a portion of the lower back part of the brain (cerebellum) or the brainstem extends through an opening in the back of the skull. This form of Chiari malformation is diagnosed at birth or with an ultrasound during pregnancy. This type of Chiari malformation has a higher mortality rate and may also cause neurological issues.
Causes of Chiari I malformation
The exact cause of Chiari malformation is unknown, but it is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Some possible environmental factors that may contribute to Chiari I malformation include:
- Head trauma
- Spinal cord injury
- Tumors in the brain or spinal cord
Symptoms of Chiari I malformation
The symptoms of Chiari malformation can vary from person to person and may not be present at birth. Some common symptoms include:
- Neck pain
- Numbness or tingling in the arms and legs
- Slurred speech
- Vision problems
- Hearing problems
- Difficulty swallowing
- Breathing problems
Diagnosis of Chiari I malformation
Chiari malformation is diagnosed with a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging tests. Imaging tests that may be used to diagnose Chiari malformation include:
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- Computed tomography (CT) scan
Treatment for Chiari I malformation
The treatment for Chiari malformation depends on the severity of the symptoms. Mild cases may not require treatment. In more severe cases, treatment may include:
- Medications to relieve pain and other symptoms
- Surgery to relieve pressure on the brain and spinal cord
Prognosis for Chiari malformation
The prognosis for Chiari malformation is generally good. Most people with Chiari malformation can live normal lives with proper treatment. However, some people may experience complications, such as:
- Hydrocephalus, a condition in which excess cerebrospinal fluid builds up in the brain
- Brainstem compression
Living with Chiari malformation
If you have Chiari malformation, there are a number of things you can do to manage your condition and improve your quality of life. These include:
- Managing your stress levels
- Getting regular exercise
- Avoiding activities that put strain on your neck
- Eating a healthy diet
- Getting enough sleep
- Taking medications as prescribed by your doctor
If you are experiencing symptoms of Chiari malformation, it is important to see a doctor right away. Early diagnosis and treatment can help improve your chances of a good outcome.
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